Water that contains high concentrations of mainly calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions is called ‘hard water’. These ions or minerals are normally observed as scale in the water causing scaling of pipes and equipment in drinking water (breweries and beverages industries) and process water systems (cooling towers, boilers, domestic appliances, heat exchange systems, laundries, etc)
Water Softening is an ion exchange process, consisting of a pressure tank containing small beads of synthetic ion exchange resin. The beads are treated to selectively absorb cations and release “counter ions” The calcium & magnesium ions in the water are replaced with sodium ions. Since sodium does not precipitate out in pipes or react badly with soap based detergents, both the problems of hard water are eliminated.
Water Softening is an ion exchange solution for hard water and lime scale removal and for reference Total hardness of water is expressed as mg CaCO3 /R and is classified as follows:
SOUTH AFRICAN WATER QUALITY GUIDELINES Volume 1: Domestic Water Use Second Edition, 1996
|Hardness Range (mg CaCO3 /R)||Description|
|0 - 50 ppm||Soft|
|50 - 100 ppm||Moderately Soft|
|100 - 150 ppm||Slightly Hard|
|150 - 200 ppm||Moderately Hard|
|200 - 300 ppm||Hard|
|300 >||Very Hard|
We can advise on the correct sizing needs as per your incoming water conditions, requirements & budget constraints. WPM also carries the required Ion Exchange media (Resin) in stock and is able to ship anywhere as and when required.